December 18, 2014

Apple patches security flaws in iOS 8, OS X 10.10 and Apple TV 7

Apple-logo(LiveHacking.Com) – Apple has released new versions of three of its major software products. The new versions of iOS, OS X and Apple TV address multiple security vulnerabilities. iOS 8.1.1, which is available for the iPhone 4s and later; the iPod touch (5th generation) and later; and the iPad 2 and later; addresses nine separate vulnerabilities. Apple TV 7.0.2, which is available for Apple TV 3rd generation and later, addresses four vulnerabilities, all of which are common with the iOS release. OS X 10.10.1 patches four flaws, two of which are common with the iOS release and two which are specific to OS X.

The common fixes are as follows:

  • iOS and OS X: A privacy issue existed where browsing data could remain in the cache after leaving private browsing. (CVE-2014-4460)
  • iOS and OS X: The initial connection made by Spotlight or Safari to the Spotlight Suggestions servers included a user’s approximate location before a user entered a query. (CVE-2014-4453)
  • iOS and Apple TV: A state management issue existed in the handling of Mach-O executable files with overlapping segments. (CVE-2014-4455)
  • iOS and Apple TV: A malicious application may be able to execute arbitrary code with system privileges due to a validation issue that existed in the handling of certain metadata fields in IOSharedDataQueue objects. (CVE-2014-4461)
  • iOS and Apple TV: Due to multiple memory corruption issues in WebKit, visiting a maliciously crafted website may lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution. (CVE-2014-4452 and CVE-2014-4462)

The iOS specific fixes are:

  • In some circumstances, the failed passcode attempt limit was not enforced. (CVE-2014-4451)
  • The Leave a Message option in FaceTime may have allowed viewing and sending photos from the device. (CVE-2014-4463)
  • A permissions issue existed with the debugging functionality for iOS that allowed the spawning of applications on trusted devices that were not being debugged. (CVE-2014-4457)

The OS X only patches are:

  • The request made by About This Mac to determine the model of the system and direct users to the correct help resources included unnecessary cookies. (CVE-2014-4458)
  • Visiting a maliciously crafted website may lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution due to a use after free issue existed in the handling of page objects. (CVE-2014-4459)

More information about all these patches can be found on Apple’s Security Updates web site: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1222

Apple release iOS 8.1 and Apple TV 7.0.1 with new security patches

Apple-logo(LiveHacking.Com) – Apple has released iOS 8.1, primarily to activate Apple Pay, but also to patch five CVE-listed vulnerabilities including fixes for a Bluetooth flaw and  a fix for the infamous SSL 3.0 POODLE security vulnerability.

POODLE (Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption) is the moniker given to a flaw in the SSL 3.0 protocol. SSL 3.0 is considered old and obsolete. It has been replaced by its successors TLS 1.0, TLS 1.1, and TLS 1.2. However many system still support SSL 3.0 for compatibility reasons. Many systems retry failed secure connections with older protocol versions, including SSL 3.0. This means that a hacker can trigger the use of SSL 3.0 and try to exploit POODLE.

The vulnerability only exists when the SSL 3.0 cipher suite uses a block cipher in CBC mode. As a result, Apple has disabled CBC cipher suites when TLS connection attempts fail in iOS 8.1.

Apple also fixed a flaw would could allow a malicious Bluetooth device to bypass pairing. According to Apple, “unencrypted connections were permitted from Human Interface Device-class Bluetooth Low Energy accessories. If an iOS device had paired with such an accessory, an attacker could spoof the legitimate accessory to establish a connection. The issue was addressed by denying unencrypted HID connections.”

With the recent spate of leaked celebrity photos, Apple’s iCloud service has remained under the spotlight. According to Apple a flaw has been fixed which could allow an attacker in a privileged network position to force iCloud data access clients to leak sensitive information. The problem is connected with a TLS certificate validation vulnerability that existed in the iCloud data access clients on previous versions of iOS.

Apple TV 7.0.1

The update to Apple TV is smaller than the changes to iOS, however just as significant. Like the iOS 8.1 release, Apple TV 7.0.1 denies unencrypted HID connections to block malicious Bluetooth input devices that try to bypass pairing. iOS 8.1 also disables CBC cipher suites when TLS connection attempts fail, this is needed to stop hackers trying to exploit the POODLE flaw in SSL 3.0.

Apple TV will periodically check for software updates and will install the update on the next check. However if you want to manually check for software updates go to “Settings -> General -> Update Software”.

Apple releases iOS 8 with 56 security patches

ios8-logo(LiveHacking.Com) – Along side the release of the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus Apple has also released a new version of its mobile operating system. iOS 8 includes improvements to Siri and the ability for third parties to add widgets to the notification area. Apple are calling it “huge for developers,  massive for everyone else.” iOS 8 also includes some important security fixes. Overall Apple addressed 56 unique CVEs in this release.

Among the changes are fixes for bugs which could allow an attacker with access to an iOS device to access sensitive user information from logs, allow a local attacker to escalate privileges and install unverified applications, and fixes for bugs that allow some kernel hardening measures may be bypassed.

Other fixes include a patch to stop maliciously crafted PDF files that can allow an attacker to run arbitrary code, and a patch to stop malicious applications executing arbitrary code with system privileges. Most of these issues revolve around NULL pointer dereferencing and bounds checking. For example an out-of-bounds read issue existed in the handling of an IOHIDFamily function. As a result, a malicious application may be able to read kernel pointers and then bypass kernel address space layout randomization. According to Apple’s release notes, “this issue was addressed through improved bounds checking.” A phrase that is found several times in Apple’s document that describes the security content of iOS 8.

Webkit, the open source HTML rendering engine used by Apple, also received a lot of patches (12 in total). According to Apple visiting a maliciously crafted website in previous versions of iOS may lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution. This was because of multiple memory corruption issues in WebKit. These issues were addressed through improved memory handling.

As well as releasing iOS 8, Apple also released new versions of OS X, OS X Server, Safari, and Apple TV. These are all maintenance releases which fix bug and patch security vulnerabilities. The full list of updates including links to the relevant security information follows:

Apple patches ‘Find My iPhone’ vulnerability that could have responsible for celeb photo leaks

apple-icloud(LiveHacking.Com) – Reports are starting to emerge that Apple has patched a weakness in its ‘Find My iPhone’ service that could have been used by hackers to steal private photos of nearly 100 Hollywood celebrities. Over the weekend an anonymous hacker posted revealing pictures of nearly 100 celebrities including Oscar-winning Hunger Games actress Jennifer Lawrence, as well as personal photos belonging to Kim Kardashian, Kate Upton, Kirsten Dunst and many others. It is thought that the hacker stole the photos from Apple’s iCloud storage system.

The breach is being linked with a new hacking tool which was recently uploaded to GitHub called “ibrute.” The tool relied on the fact that Apple did not use any brute force protection in its ‘Find My iPhone’ service API. This meant that a script (like ibrute) could be used to try and crack Apple passwords by brute force (i.e. by trying thousands of passwords in rapid succession). The ibrute tool used the top 500 passwords from the RockYou leaked passwords. The RockYou list includes passwords which satisfy Apple’s password policy.

Apple requires its users to create passwords with a minimum of 8 characters that do not contain more than 3 consecutive identical letters, and include a number, an uppercase letter, and a lowercase letter. The top passwords from the RockYou list which satisfies these conditions are: Password1, Princess1, P@ssw0rd, Passw0rd and Michael1.

iCloud is part of Apple’s ecosystem that automatically uploads photos taken with an iPhone to the cloud. From here the photos can be seen on other Apple devices owned by the account holder. iCloud also acts as a form of backup so if a device is lost or broken the photos are still available. The problem is that some people don’t realize that their photos are being sent automatically to Apple’s servers and the only thing stopping others from viewing those photos is their password, which isn’t much protection at all if the user has set a password like Password1 and so on.

Apple fixes 44 security bugs in iOS

Apple-logo(LiveHacking.Com) – Apple has released a new point release of iOS 7 to address 44 different security issues with Apple’s mobile operating system. Among the patches are bug fixes for vulnerabilities in the iOS kernel, and fixes for errors in “launchd,” which could allow a malicious application to execute arbitrary code with system privileges. There are also lots of fixes for WebKit, the HTML rendering engine used by Safari.

The kernel vulnerability, which could cause an iOS device to unexpectedly restart, exists because of a null pointer de-reference in the handling of IOKit API arguments. This problem was addressed through additional validation of IOKit API arguments.

launchd has been patched quite extensively in this release. The program is responsible for starting, stopping and managing back ground processes and apps on iOS. According to Apple’s security notice for iOS 7.1.2, launchd has several different vulnerabilities including a heap buffer overflow in the handling of IPC messages, a heap buffer overflow in the handling of log messages, and some unspecified integer overflow/underflow issues. All of these could possibly allow a malicious application to execute arbitrary code with system privileges.

The WebKit HTML rendering engine was also heavily patched with 28 unique bugs being squashed. Many of the bugs were discovered either by Google’s Chrome Security Team or by renowned security researchers like “miaubiz” who were participating in Google’s Vulnerability Rewards Program for Chromium. However Apple did find several bugs on its own. In total, the discovery of 12 of the 28 vulnerabilities is attributed (or co-attributed) to Apple. The result of the “multiple memory corruption issues” in WebKit was that a user visiting a maliciously crafted website could lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution.

Two other WebKit vulnerabilities were also found by Erling Ellingsen of Facebook. The first was an encoding issue that existed in the handling of unicode characters in URLs. The result was that a malicious site could send messages to a connected frame or window in a way that might circumvent the receiver’s origin check. The other problem was a spoofing issue that existed in the handling of URLs.

Another interesting issue fixed in this version of iOS was a problem with Siri and lock codes. If a Siri request referred to one of several possible contacts, Siri displayed a list of choices and the option ‘More…’ for a complete contact list. When used at the lock screen, Siri did not require the passcode before viewing the complete contact list.

iOS 7.1.2 is available now for the iPhone 4 and later, the iPod touch (5th generation) and later, and the iPad 2 and later.

Apple updates OS X, iOS, Apple TV and AirPort

Apple-logoApple has released a slew of updates for several of its key platforms to fix a range of security issues including some related to the OpenSSL HeartBleed bug. According to the release notes for AirPort Base Station Firmware Update 7.7.3, the new software contains a fix for an out-of-bounds memory issue in the OpenSSL library when handling TLS heartbeat extension packets (i.e. the HeartBleed bug). Only AirPort Extreme and AirPort Time Capsule base stations with 802.11ac are affected.

For iOS, Apple TV and OS X, Apple also released a set of patches one of which also applies to sessions protected by SSL. Known as a “triple handshake” attack, it was possible for an attacker to create two connections using the same keys and handshake. As a result an attacker could insert data into one connection and renegotiate so that the connections are forwarded to each other. To work around this scenario Apple has changed the SSL renegotiation code so that  the same server certificate needs to be presented as in the original connection.

The update to OS X is called Security Update 2014-002 and has various changes for  OS X 10.7 Lion, OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion and OS X 10.9 Mavericks. The changes are as follows:

  • Set-Cookie HTTP headers would be processed even if the connection closed before the header line was complete. An attacker could strip security settings from the cookie by forcing the connection to close before the security settings were sent, and then obtain the value of the unprotected cookie.
  • A format string issue existed in the CoreServicesUIAgent’s handling of URLs.
  • A buffer underflow existed in the handling of fonts in PDF files.
  • A reachable abort existed in the Heimdal Kerberos’ handling of ASN.1 data. This meant that a remote attacker could cause a denial of service.
  • A buffer overflow issue existed in ImageIO’s handling of JPEG images.
  • A validation issue existed in the Intel Graphics Driver’s handling of a pointer from userspace. As a result a malicious application could take control of the system.
  • A set of kernel pointers stored in an IOKit object could be retrieved from userland.
  • A kernel pointer stored in a XNU object could be retrieved from userland.
  • If a key was pressed or the trackpad touched just after the lid was closed, the system might have tried to wake up while going to sleep, which would have caused the screen to be unlocked. This issue was addressed by ignoring keypresses while going to sleep.
  • An integer overflow issue existed in LibYAML’s handling of YAML tags as used by Ruby.
  • A heap-based buffer overflow issue existed in Ruby when converting a string to a floating point value.
  • WindowServer sessions could be created by sandboxed applications.

Apple has also updated iOS 7 with the release of iOS 7.1.1. It patches the same Set-Cookie HTTP headers bug as found in OS X plus it updates WebKit (the HTML rendering engine used by mobile Safari) to fix a number of issues, many of which were found by Google (for its Chrome browser). The new Apple TV 6.1.1 firmware has the same changes as iOS 7.1.1 and addresses the Set-Cookie HTTP headers bug and also patches WebKit.

You can get more information on Apple’s security updates here: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1222

Apple fixes security vulnerabilities with release of iOS 7.1 and Apple TV 6.1

iosApple has released a new version of its popular iOS platform for the iPhone 4 and later, the iPod touch (5th generation) and later, and iPad 2 and later. It has also released a new version of the Apple TV platform for Apple TV 2nd generation units and later.

iOS 7.1 adds a range of new features  but crucially it also fixes a wide variety of security issues including fixes to the WebKit HTML rendering engine used by Safari. In a ironic twist Apple has credited four of the fixes to the evad3rs jailbreak team. According to Apple the following fixes were made to tackle the jailbreakers techniques:

  • A symbolic link in a backup would be restored, allowing subsequent operations during the restore to write to the rest of the filesystem. This issue was addressed by checking for symbolic links during the restore process. CVE-2013-5133 : evad3rs
  • CrashHouseKeeping followed symbolic links while changing permissions on files. This issue was addressed by not following symbolic links when changing permissions on files. CVE-2014-1272 : evad3rs
  • Text relocation instructions in dynamic libraries may be loaded by dyld without code signature validation. This issue was addressed by ignoring text relocation instructions. CVE-2014-1273 : evad3rs
  • An out of bounds memory access issue existed in the ARM ptmx_get_ioctl function. This issue was addressed through improved bounds checking. CVE-2014-1278 : evad3rs

The oldest bug fixed was CVE-2012-2088 which was fixed in OS X in March 2013. Because of a buffer overflow in libtiff’s handling of TIFF images, viewing a maliciously crafted TIFF file may lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution. This issue was fix through additional validation of TIFF images. Other fixed bugs which could lead to arbitrary code execution include: a buffer overflow that existed in the handling of JPEG2000 images in PDF files, CVE-2014-1275 : Felix Groebert of the Google Security Team; a double free issue that existed in the handling of Microsoft Word documents, CVE-2014-1252 : Felix Groebert of the Google Security Team; and a memory corruption issue that existed in the handling of USB messages, CVE-2014-1287 : Andy Davis of NCC Group.

Apple has posted a document online describing the full security content of iOS 7.1.

Apple TV

Simultaneously with the iOS 7.1 release, Apple also released Apple TV 6.1. Many of the same bugs are addressed including three by the evad3rs jailbreak team along with the other arbitrary code execution vulnerabilities. One specific Apple TV vulnerability allowed an attacker with access to an Apple TV to access sensitive user information from the log files. The problem was that this sensitive user information was being logged by the system. This issue was fixed by altering the logging output.

Apple’s website contains more information about the security content of Apple TV 6.1.

New digitally signed malware targets Mac users

os x mavericks desktopA new piece of digitally signed malware that targets Mac users has been discovered. The new malware, which has been dubbed OSX/LaoShu-A by Sophos and is considered as bot, is being used in an “undelivered courier item” email campaign which tries to trick users into downloading the malware as they try to see the description of an alleged undelivered parcel.

In this particular case the email explains that the undelivered item contained some documents which have been scanned and are waiting for the user to inspect them. A link is provided which takes the unsuspecting user to a fake courier website (often a clone of a real courier website like FedEx or DHL) and then proceeds to download an attachment. If the malicious website detects that the web browser is running on Windows then a piece of malware called Mal/VBCheMan-C is downloaded.

However for Mac users a .zip file is downloaded containing an application that looks like a PDF document. OS X will automatically unzip the file and leave the application in the Downloads folder. The app icon has been intentionally given the PDF icon to trick users into thinking it is a PDF document. However when clicked it will install the malware. Because the application is digitally signed OS X won’t produce a warning about the application coming from an unknown source, but rather it will only warn the user that it has been downloaded from the Internet. Although the warning does actually say “application” rather than “document” the dialog offers the user two possibilities to Cancel or to Open. The use  of the word Open by Apple rather than Run can leave the user with the impression that they are opening a document.

According to Sophos OSX/LaoShu-A is a bot and takes commands from a C&C server, however its main function appear to be data stealing as it will search for files with extensions such as DOC, DOCX, XLS, XLSX, PPT and PPTX and try to upload them to the C&C server. However it can also download new program files and execute shell commands which means it will basically be able to do whatever the attackers tell it to do.

In conclusion, don’t click on random links in unsolicited emails especially those with good link bait like the undelivered courier item emails.

Apple releases new versions of Safari to fix critical vulnerabilities

safari-logoApple has released new versions of Safari 6.1 and Safari 7.0 for Mac OS X to fix critical vulnerabilities. If exploited these vulnerabilities could lead to arbitrary code execution. The bugs fixed fall into two categories, those with Safari itself and those in the WebKit HTML rendering engine.

In Safari itself Apple has fixed one vulnerability which allowed hackers to create a site where Safari autofilled various user credentials unexpectedly. This could have led to unwanted information disclosure. According to Apple, ” Safari may have autofilled user names and passwords into a subframe from a different domain than the main frame. This issue was addressed through improved origin tracking.”

The other fixes where for WebKit. Because of the vulnerabilities, a visit to a maliciously crafted website could lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution. This was due to multiple memory corruption issues which were addressed through improved memory handling.

More details of the security content of Safari 6.1.1 and Safari 7.0.1 can be found here. Safari 6.1.1 and Safari 7.0.1 are available for OS X Lion v10.7.5, OS X Lion Server v10.7.5, OS X Mountain Lion v10.8.5, and OS X Mavericks v10.9.

Apple has also released an update to its latest iteration of OS X.

Apple recommends that all 10.9 users apply the OS X Mavericks v10.9.1 update. The update includes Safari 7.0.1 but doesn’t fix any other security issues in OS X. There are other bug fixes and enhancements which include:

  • Improved support for Gmail in OS X Mail, and fixes for users with custom Gmail settings Improves the reliability of Smart Mailboxes and search in Mail
  • Fixes an issue that prevented contact groups from working properly in Mail
  • Fixes an issue that prevented iLife and iWork apps from updating on non-English systems
  • Addresses an issue that may cause multiple prompts to unlock “Local items” keychain

More details about the security content of OS X Mavericks v10.9.1 can be found here.

Apple releases huge set of updates on back of new iPad announcements

Apple-logoApple has released a new slew of products in the run up to the holiday season including the new iPad Air, the iPad mini with a Retina display, the radically designed Mac Pro and an updated MacBook Pro. Along with these products Apple also released OS X 10.9 Mavericks which addresses some significant security vulnerabilities in OS X. Apple also released updates for iOS, OS X Server, Safari and iTunes.

OS X

Over 50 different security related bugs (with individual CVE designations) have been fixed. The most interesting of these include:

  • A fix to enable TLS 1.2 for CIFS networking as SSLv3 and TLS 1.0 are subject to a protocol weakness when using block ciphers. According to Apple, a man-in-the-middle attacker could have injected invalid data, causing the connection to close but revealing some information about the previous data. If the same connection was attempted repeatedly the attacker may eventually have been able to decrypt the data being sent, such as a password.
  • Viewing a maliciously crafted PDF file may lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution. This was due to a buffer underflow in the handling of PDF files.
  • A malicious local application could cause a crash in the Bluetooth subsystem which could potentially be exploited. The problem was that the Bluetooth USB host controller was deleting interfaces too early.
  •  By registering for a hotkey event, an unprivileged application may be able to log keystrokes entered into other applications even when secure input mode is enabled.

The Darwin kernel was also updated to fix a variety of problems that in some cases could force a kernel panic. These included:

  • Use of SHA-2 digest functions in the kernel may result in an unexpected system termination. This bug revolved around an incorrect output length that was used for the SHA-2 family of digest functions. It resulted in a kernel panic when these functions were used, primarily during IPSec connections.
  • The kernel random number generator would hold a lock while satisfying a request from userspace, allowing a local user to make a large request and hold the lock for long periods of time, denying service to other users of the random number generator. This issue was addressed by releasing and reacquiring the lock for large requests more frequently.
  • The kernel would panic when an invalid user-supplied iovec structure was detected. This issue was addressed through improved validation of iovec structures.
  • Unprivileged processes may be able to cause an unexpected system termination or arbitrary code execution in the kernel.
  • Source specific multicast program may cause an unexpected system termination when using Wi-Fi network
  • An attacker on a local network can send specially crafted IPv6 ICMP packets and cause high CPU load. The issue was addressed by rate limiting ICMP packets before verifying their
  • checksum.
  • An integer truncation issue existed in the kernel socket interface, which could be leveraged to force the CPU into an infinite loop. The issue was addressed by using a larger sized variable.

Lots of third party applications where also updated including Curl, dyld, OpenLDAP, Perl, Python and Ruby.

iOS 7

iOS 7.0.3 is also now available and addresses more passcode and lock screen related problems:

  • A NULL dereference existed in the lock screen which would cause it to restart if the emergency call button was tapped while a notification was being swiped and while the camera pane was partly visible. While the lock screen was restarting, the call dialer could not get the lock screen state and assumed the device was unlocked, and so allowed non-emergency numbers to be dialed.
  • When returning to the passcode lock from the Phone app, the passcode entry view is sometimes visible when it should not be, and so may be accessed even if the iPhone has been disabled due to many incorrect passcode attempts.
  • A person with physical access to the device may be able to call arbitrary contacts because of a race conditions in the Phone app at the lock screen. Under various circumstances, the Phone app may allow access to the Contacts pane.

Safari 6.1

While OS X 10.9 includes the latest iteration of Apple’s web browser (Safari 7), Apple has also updated Safari 6 for OS X Lion v10.7.5, OS X Lion Server v10.7.5, and OS X Mountain Lion v10.8.5. Safari 6.1 fixes a number of problems most of them within WebKit, the rendering engine used by Apple and Google. Many of the bugs listed were previously fixed by Google in Chrome.

  • Visiting a maliciously crafted website may lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution. This was due to a memory corruption in the handling of
  • XML files.
  • Visiting a maliciously crafted website may lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution, this time due to multiple memory corruption in WebKit.
  • An information disclosure issue existed in XSSAuditor. This issue was addressed through improved handling of URLs.
  • Dragging or pasting a selection may lead to a cross-site scripting attack. By dragging or pasting a selection from one site to another a user could allow scripts contained in the selection to be executed in the context of the new site. This issue is addressed through additional validation of content before a paste or a drag and drop operation.
  • Using the Web Inspector disabled Private Browsing.
  • A cross-site scripting issue existed in the handling of URLs. This issue was addressed through improved origin tracking.

OS X Server 3.0, iTunes and Apple Remote Desktop

Apple also released OS X Server 3.0 which addressed a number of security vulnerabilities including  a buffer overflow that existed in FreeRADIUS when parsing the ‘not after’ timestamp in a client certificate, when using TLS-based EAP methods. As a result of this, a remote attacker may have been able to cause a denial of service or arbitrary code execution.

Apple released two new versions of it Remote Desktop software, v3.7 and v3.5.4. Both versions fix the same security related bugs, the most severe of which could allow a remote attacker to execute arbitrary code because of a format string vulnerability in the handling of the VNC username.

Windows users also get an update in the form of iTunes 11.1.2. Several different errors are fixed, most are related to WebKit and are similar to the ones fixed in Safari 6.1.

More information about all of Apple’s security related updates can be found at http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1222